Page 1 of 1

Обзор Сборников аддонов Lua Edu Tools / Lua Universal Tools

Posted: 16.01.2019, 12:17
by Croc
"Дополнения Lua Edu Tools / Lua Universal Tools" об аддонах, управляемых графическим интерфейсом Lua Edu Tools или Lua Universal Tools.

1. Сборник аддонов в графическом интерфейсе Lua_Edu_Tools_1.2beta8, см. вложение
1.1. Файл README.txt от 25.02.2010. Автор Vincent Giangiulio
* (c) 2009
* Vincent Giangiulio <>
* Hank Ramsey

The 'Lua Edu Tools' is an addon for Celestia 1.6 that provides :
- A Graphical Interface that simplifies access to the main commands in order to allow students
and non-confirmed users to run Celestia in complete autonomy.
- New features that are not available in Celestia 1.6: compass, InfoText/Image, distance markers, etc...

The Graphical Interface includes the following components:
> Simulation Date and Time in the system locale format, Timescale slider, Time/Date setting option;
> Ambient Light slider;
> Magnitude slider;
> Galaxy Light Gain slider;
> Render Options setting option;
> Navigation buttons: Go to Sun; Go to Selection; Follow Selection; Sync Orbit; Track Selection;
> Solar System browser which classifies objects according to their type (planets, moons, asteroids, ...);
> FOV slider;
> Addon Visibility setting option;
> Information Text overlay (infoText), and Image overlay with diaporama (infoImage);
> Celestial Coordinates : Equatorial, Ecliptic and Galactic;
> Distance markers:
- distance square-markers are displayed in the observer's plane and centered on screen;
- distance circle-markers are displayed in the ecliptic plane and centered on the current selection;
> Magnification option for an educational visualization of our Solar System (objects in magnified size);
> Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram;
> Keplerian parameters (dynamically computed);
> Virtual Pad for an easy control of pitch and yaw motion.
> Compass: (you can click on the compass to change its position on screen)
- Planetarium/Navigation mode buttons;
- Longitude/Latitude or Azimuth/Elevation (click to switch);

The 'Custom Goto' command, accessible by [Shift]+[G], moves the camera to the current selection
and makes it fit the screen. The travelling duration of the 'Custom Goto' command can be set in the
configuration file (cf section: 'HOW TO CUSTOMIZE THE LUA EDU TOOLS ?').

1- Unzip and paste the 'lua_edu_tools' folder in your 'extras' folder.
2- Paste the 'luahookinit.lua' file in your Celestia root folder.
3- Add this line to your celestia.cfg file :
LuaHook "luahookinit.lua" # <-- Line to add

The Lua Edu Tools 1.2 are for use with Celestia 1.6:

- Once the Lua Edu Tools are installed, the Graphical Interface is automatically displayed
each time you run Celestia.
- You can enable/disable the Lua Edu Tools either by clicking on the right hand side of the
toolbox or by pressing [Shift]+[i].
- All the standard features of Celestia, like the keyboard controls, remain active even
when the Graphical Interface is on.

- The Lua Edu Tools are easily customizable via the 'config.lua file'. There you can define
your own set of elements that you want to include in the Tool Box, and choose whether
the Lua Edu Tools are displayed or not each time Celestia starts. You can also set your
own parameters such as the language, the time zone, the colors of elements of the Graphical
Interface, the default position of the compass...
The 'config.lua' file can be edited using a simple text editor (Notepad, ...).

- The Lua Edu Tools are already available in several languages: "de" (German), "en" (English),
"fr" (French), "it" (Italian), "ko" (Korean), "nl" (Dutch), "ru" (Russian), "sv" (Swedish).
On Windows and Linux, the system locale language ('lang') is automatically detected.
On Mac, you can set your local language by editing the 'language' entry in the 'config.lua' file.
A translated version of this readme.txt file can be found in each 'lang' folder
present in the 'locale' folder.

- To add your own Information text, edit the 'infos/infoText.lua' file, or the
'locale/lang/infoText_lang.lua' file that corresponds to your language.
> Simply add the following line(s) for each object:
Name_of_object = [[ infoText ]];
Note: Use ["Name of object"] if the name contains any spaces.

- To add your own Information images, edit the 'infos/infoImage.lua' file.
Several image files can be used for the same object (diaporama).
> Simply add the following lines for each object:
Name_of_object = { "image_filename_1"; "image_filename_2"; ... }
Note: Use ["Name of object"] if the name contains spaces.
Then, place your image files into the 'images' folder.

- You can display your own set of stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram.
The files containing the list of star names should be placed in the infos/' folder
and named as 'HR_stars_1.lua', 'HR_stars_2.lua', ...
You can use the existing 'HR_stars_1.lua' file as an example.

- You can include your own addon to the 'Addon Visibility' option. To do so, you need to create a
Lua file on the same model as the 'adds/Political_Borders/Political_Borders.lua' file, and place
it in the 'adds' folder. Then, just add the name of your Lua file into the 'adds' list in 'config.lua'.
The name displayed in the 'Addon Visibility' window will be the same as the name of your Lua file,
except that underscores '_' will be replaced by spaces ' '.
The Lua file contains a table which can include the following values:
> objects = { string:object1path, string:object2path, ... }
Defines the list of objects whose visibility will be enabled/disabled.
> labelcolor = {number:red, number:green, number:blue, number:alpha}
Defines the color of the addon labels. The name of the addon will be then displayed using
this same color in the 'Addon Visibility' window.
> locationtype = string:location_type
Defines the type of location that will be enabled/disabled simultaneously with the objects visibility.
List of all location types:
> script = string:scriptfilename
Defines the filename of the script that is run whenever the addon is enabled via the checkbox.
The script path is relative to the addon's directory.

- You can translate the Lua Edu Tools in your own language (lang) by creating the following files:
> 'locale/lang/lang.lua'
> 'locale/lang/infoText_lang.lua'
> 'locale/lang/images/compass_lang.png'
You can use the 'locale/fr/fr.lua', 'locale/fr/infoText_fr.lua', and 'locale/fr/images/compass_fr.png' files
as examples. A 'compass.psd file' containing all the layers is provided in the 'images' folder.
Please, don't forget to translate this 'readme.txt' file too.
Then, please send your translated files to <> so that they can be included into the
official release of the Lua Edu Tools. Thanks !

Note: You can edit any of the .lua files using your favorite text editor (Notepad, ...).
You can use Notepad2 if you need to add text with accentuated characters,
or characters from Russian, Green, Cyrillic, ... alphabets:
1- Download Notepad2 at:
2- Open the .lua file within Notepad2: File > Open...
3- Choose UTF-8 encoding: File > Encoding > UTF-8
4- Edit the file by adding your own text, and save it: File > Save

- The Lua Edu Tools can be freely used/copied/modified/distributed for non-commercial activities.
Please keep a copy of the original version of this 'readme.txt' file within your 'lua_edu_tools' folder.

- You must contact the author <> if you want to use the original or a modified version
of the Lua Edu Tools for any commercial activity.

- All images except compass.png and compass_lang.png are courtesy of NASA []

- Thanks to all the translators for their contribution on the internationalization of the Lua Edu Tools:
DE: Ulrich Dickmann aka Adirondack <>
KO: Seung-Bum Lee <>
RU: Sergey Leonov <>
SV: Anders Pamdal <>

- Special thanks to Martin (Cham) and ElChristou for their help and precious contribution to this project.
Thanks to Massimo (Fenerit), and all testers for their very helpful reports.
Big thanks to Ken (Jedi) for his contribution on the coding of the distance circle markers.

1.2. Нахождение сборника аддонов - ..\extras\lua_edu_tools\adds\
1.3. Состав сборника аддонов, всего 9 аддонов (извлечение из config.lua от 07.02.2010):

Code: Select all

-- Define the list of elements that are included in the 'Addon Visibility' setting window.
-- To remove an element, just add a comment mark '--' before its name.
adds =

1.4. Структура:

Внимание. Название папки, файла *.lua и название позиции в config.lua (раздел adds =) должны быть идентичными.
1.5. Пример lua-файла для аддона Asteroid_Belt:

Code: Select all

Asteroid_Belt =
    objects =
            "Sol/Asteroid Belt 1",
            "Sol/Asteroid Belt 2",

Posted: 16.01.2019, 20:12
by Croc
2. Сборник аддонов в апгрейде графического интерфейса Lua_Edu_Tools_Addons_v1, см. вложение
2.1. Файл Read-me.txt от 05.02.2010. Автор Frank Gregorio
Read-me file for Lua Edu Tools Addons, version 1.2 beta 7 or later:

I have assembled and optimized several excellent Earth Science and Astronomy addons for use with Lua Edu Tools, beta 7 or later. The addons were created primarily from the gifted Celestia designer Cham (Martin Charest) and from Vincent Giangiulio and Fenerit. In modifying these addons for use in Lua Tools, I have positioned them in the Lua addon list, optimized their text colors so as not to compete with each other, added locations, created required lua files and edited some existing ones to turn on or turn off specific location labels, etc.

The biggest effort went into separating the addons so that they work independently. For example, toggle on the earthquakes addon and it will display alone. Toggle on the volcanoes addon and it too will now display only volcanoes. Combine them with oceans and seas, tectonic plates, political boundaries, etc., and you have more control of what displays and what does not, when a particular addon is activated.

I also converted several addons for use within Lua tools.

Most of these addons replace/augment addons already provided as part of Vincent's Lua Edu Tools beta 7 download.

Celestia 1.6.0 is required to use some of these addons.

The following are the addons present in this zip compilation:

1. Asteroid Belt - From Lua Edu Tools - Created by Martin Charest (Cham) and Vincent Giangiulio
It shows the Asteroid Belt as a hazy band of white dots between Mars and Jupiter that orbit the sun. In this version, the belt is not visible until you toggle it on.
Note: Replaces Asteroid Belt, which is included in Lua Edu Tools

2. Atmospheric Compositions - Created by Fenerit, minor edit by Frank Gregorio
It places an information display around the outside of the sun, and the nine original planets, plus Titan, showing the % mass of the elements in the atmosphere of each object
Note: Replaces Atmospheric Composition, which is included in Lua Edu Tools

3. Earth Cities - A combination of world capitals from the Celestia default data file, and primary cities on Earth. World capitals are displayed in green. Other cities are displayed in orange

4. Earth Features - A set of locations created by Frank Gregorio showing some of the major geographic features on Earth, such as Mt. Everest, Mt. McKinley, the Grand Canyon, the Pyramids, etc. Easily edited to add new locations as you wish.

5. Large Scale Universe - From Lua Edu Tools - Created by Martin Charest and Vincent Giangiulio, minor edit by Frank Gregorio - displays a mesh of large scale structure of the universe
Note: Replaces Large Scale Universe, which is included in Lua Edu Tools

6. Hubble Classification - Created by Martin Charest, script by Marco Klunder
Displays the Hubble classifications of galaxy types, as a huge billboard in space. A short script is included that takes you in front of it.

7. Galactic Center - Created by Martin Charest (no changes made)
Displays the center of the Milky Way with a massive black hole and surrounding stars

8. Habitable Zone - Created by Martin Charest (no changes made)
Places a purple band of haze around that location in the solar system where the conditions for life appear suitable (water can exist as a liquid at least some of the year)

9. Impact Craters - From Lua Edu Tools - Created by Martin Charest and Vincent Giangiulio, minor editing by Frank Gregorio
Combines locations for meteorite impact sites on Earth with craters on the moon
Note: Replaces Meteorite Impacts, which is included in Lua Edu Tools

10. Near Stars - Created by Martin Charest, minor edit by Frank Gregorio
Displays the stars within 15 LY to Earth as highlighted and labeled markers, with 3D lines from the sun to each star and a polar grid plane showing their positions

11. Plate Motions - Created by Fenerit, minor edit by Frank Gregorio
Shows arrows and colors highlighting the movement of the tectonic plates. If you also select the Lua Addons Tectonic Plates, Earth Volcanoes and Earthquakes, you can combine four concepts regarding continental movements at the same time.

12. Tectonic Plates - Created by Martin Charest, edited by Frank Gregorio
Highlights the borders of the tectonic plates on Earth, individually labeled

13. Oceans, Seas and Coasts - Created by Martin Charest, edited by Frank Gregorio
Highlights the world's oceans and most of its seas, with all oceans and seas labeled in green, coastlines outlined in blue and all countries labeled in lavender
Note: Replaces World Coastlines, which is included in Lua Edu Tools

14. Political Borders - Created by Martin Charest, minor edit by Frank Gregorio
Toggles a bright outline of all country borders, labeled with each country's name
Note: Replaces Political Borders, which is included in Lua Edu Tools

15. Earth Volcanoes - From Lua Edu Tools - Created by Martin Charest, minor edit by Frank Gregorio
Lists the location of Earth's volcanoes, with markers. Particularly useful with Tectonic Plates addon.
Note: Replaces Earth Volcanoes, which is included in Lua Edu Tools

16. Earthquakes - Created by Martin Charest, edited by Frank Gregorio
Shows the location and date of Earth's historic earthquakes, highlighted by small crosses. Particularly useful with Tectonic Plates addon.

17. Magnetic Field - Created by Martin Charest, edited by Frank Gregorio
Displays the Magnetic Field lines around Earth, along with a glowing aurora on the North and South Poles.

18. Dying sun – Based on educational addon by Frank Gregorio, modified by Martin Charest and Vincent Giangiulio – no change made
A scripted journey into the future to see our sun swell to a red giant and engulf the inner planets

19. Celestia ship Cockpit – Created by Vincent Giangiulio and Frank Gregorio
Adds a new button to the Lua Edu Toolkit to toggle on a view of the interior of the space shuttle cockpit. Your view of space is through its transparent window. Provides a neat effect for those who like to imagine themselves flying through Celestia space in their own hyperdrive spaceship.

To use these addons in Lua Edu Tools, first unzip the file to any convenient location. Open the Lua Edu Tools beta 7 folder that you already have, and save the existing config.lua file that you have to another location. Also drag the addons folder out of Lua Tools and save to any convenient location.

Then, drag the new config.lua file included with this addon into the Lua Edu Tools folder/directory, and drag the entire addons folder into the same directory. Finally, drag the tools, images and utils folders provided with this addon into the main Lua Edu Tools directory. The tools folder contains a new file, and an edit to the addsbox.lua file (to add the cockpit button). Allow it to overwrite the existing addsbox.lua file. The images folder contains an additional file for the cockpit. The utils folder contains an edit to the toolsBox,lua file. Allow it to overwrite the existing file.

Once installed, launch Celestia and activate Lua Edu Tools, if not already running. To activate tools, press the [Shift+I] keys.

Then, left-click on the “Set Addon Visibility” menu button, and a new menu will appear, listing the 18 addons. Notice the slider in that menu to display more addons. Left-click in the check boxes to turn on an addon. Uncheck the boxes to turn them off. Several addons can be activated at once. Remember that those addons pertaining to Earth will not be noticed until you center Earth in the screen.

To experience the new Cockpit feature, check the “Cockpit” box in the lower right toolkit menu. An image of the cockpit of the Space Shuttle will appear. Uncheck the box to turn it off.

You’re ready to go.

Enjoy and thanks to Martin and Vincent for their excellent professional addons for education, and to Marco Klunder for his script of the Hubble Classifications.

Frank Gregorio
January 2010

Примечание: Очень ценно, что в этом файле указаны фамилии создателей аддонов.
В пункте № 3 указан источник информации без указания фамилии создателя.
1.2. Нахождение сборника аддонов - ..\extras\lua_edu_tools\adds\
1.3. Состав сборника аддонов, всего 18 аддонов (извлечение из config.lua от 08.02.2010):

Code: Select all

-- Define the list of elements that are included in the 'Addon Visibility' setting window.
-- To remove an element, just add a comment mark '--' before its name.
adds =

Примечание: Celestia ship Cockpit - интегрирован в GUI в качестве инструмента.
2.4. Создатели аддонов:
в файле Lua_Edu_Tools_Addons_v1 указаны авторы (соавторы) аддонов, за исключением п.3. Earth Cities

Posted: 17.01.2019, 18:24
by Croc
3. Сборник аддонов в графическом интерфейсе Lua_Edu_Tools_v1.2_beta9_with_Addon_pack_ru, см. вложение

Примечание. На международном форуме нет никакой информации о версии v1.2_beta9.
Вопрос откуда она взялась?
Я обнаружил её в Проекте "Celestia Origin", release dated December 30, 2017.
В преамбуле файла ReadMe_ru.txt от 16.08.2012 говорится:

Code: Select all

*   LUA EDU Tools 1.2 beta9 for CELESTIA 1.6
*   (c) 2009
*   Vincent Giangiulio <>
*   Hank Ramsey
*   Русский перевод Sergey Leonov aka Leserg <>
*   Ошибку с FOV исправил Александр Кузнецов a.k.a Alexell <>
*   Дополнили и частично перевели список дополнений: Alexell и RGV1

В версии Lua_Edu_Tools_v1.2_beta9 есть авторская версия файла README.txt от 16.04.2010.
Этот файл идентичен файлу авторской версии файла README.txt от 02.02.2010.
Разница между этими версиями в двух строках:
В версии от 02.02.2010:

Code: Select all

*     (c) 2009
The Lua Edu Tools 1.2 are for use with Celestia 1.6:

В версии от 16.04.2010:

Code: Select all

*     (c) 2009-2010
The Lua Edu Tools 1.2 are for use with Celestia 1.6.1:

3.1. Файл ReadMe_ru.txt (раздел "ДОПОЛНЕНИЯ...") от 16.08.2012. Автор русского перевода Sergey Leonov.

Code: Select all

   1. Пояс астероидов (Asteroid Belt). Показывает модель главного пояса астероидов, расположенного между орбитами Марса и Юпитера.
   2. Структура вселенной (Large Scale Universe). Показывает модель распределения галактик на масштабах до 279 млн. световых лет от Земли.
   3. Классификация Хаббла (Hubble Classification). Выводит на экран таблицу с классификацией галактик по Хабблу.
   4. Ближайшие звезды (Near Stars). Показывает ближайшие звезды к Солнечной системе.
   5. Центр Галактики (Galactic Center). Показывает модель центральной чёрной дыры Млечного пути и орбиты 27 ближайших к ней звёзд.
   6. Смерть Солнца (Dying Sun). Показывает модель Солнца на поздней стадии его эволюции (перед взрывом красного гиганта), а также судьбу первых 5 планет Солнечной системы.
   7. Состав атмосферы (Atmosphere Composition). Показывает диаграммы химического состава атмосфер Солнца, планет и некоторых других тел Солнечной системы.
   8. Зона обитаемости (Habitable Zone). Показывает зону, расположенную на расстояниях от 0.95 до 1.37 а. е. от Солнца, где наиболее благоприятны условия для возникновения форм жизни, подобных земным.
   9. Литосферные плиты (Tectonic Plates). Показывает границы литосферных плит Земли.
   10. Движение литосферных плит (Plates Motions). Показывает схему движения литосферных плит Земли.
   11. Падения метеоритов (Meteorite Impacts). Показывает места падения 1503 метеоритов на поверхность Земли с указанием их массы.
   12. Ударные кратеры (Impact Craters). Показывает места сохранившихся кратеров, образованных при столкновении с Землёй крупных космических тел. ***
   13. Береговые линии (Oceans, Seas and Coasts). Показывает береговые линии океанов, морей и других крупных водоёмов Земли.
   14. Магнитосфера Земли (Magnetic Field). Показывает схему силовых линий невозмущённого магнитного поля Земли.
   15. Особенности земли (Earth Features). Добавляет знаменитые объекты Земли.
   16. Города Земли (Earth Cities). Добавляет новые города, столицы выделены зеленым цветом.
   17. Вулканы Земли (Earth Volcanoes). Показывает расположение 1577 вулканов на поверхности Земли.
   18. Землетрясения (Earthquakes). Показывает места, где были зафиксированы толчки от 2115 землетрясений в период с 2150 г. до новой эры по 2008 г. новой эры.
   19. Границы государств (Political Borders). Показывает сухопутные границы государств и территорий на Земле.
   20. Старт космического корабля с поверхности Земли (Earth Launch). Демонстрирует старт космического корабля с поверхности Земли и его перелёт к Луне.
   21. Экзопланеты (Extrasolar Marks). Помечает разноцветными маркерами 162 экзопланеты различных типов.
   22. Планеты Солнечной системы на одном экране (Nine Planets). Делит экран на 9 частей и позволяет наблюдать сразу за восемью планетами Солнечной системы и Плутоном при ускоренном ходе времени.
   23. Космический полёт (Random Motion). Совершает космический полёт по произвольным направлениям в межзвёздном пространстве Млечного пути.
   24. Театр теней на Юпитере (Shadowplay Jupiter). Показывает динамику тройного затмения на Юпитере, произошедшего в ноябре 1997 г.
   25. Тур по Марсу (Mars Tour). Совершает полёт над самыми интересными достопримечательностями Марса. ***
   26. Мифологические изображения небесных созвездий (Sozvez). Показывает изображения 23 созвездий, взятых с «Уранографии» - атласа звёздного неба, созданного польским астрономом XVII века - Яном Гевелием.
   27. Тур по арабским звездам (Arabic Star Tour). Начинает путешествие к 11 звёздам, названия которых имеют арабское происхождение.
   28. Восход/закат Луны (MoonriseMoonset). Делит экран на две части и позволяет ускоренно наблюдать закат и восход Луны на текущую дату с разных точек поверхности Земли.
   29. Восход/закат Солнца (SunriseSunset). Делит экран на две части и позволяет ускоренно наблюдать закат и восход Солнца на текущую дату с разных точек поверхности Земли.
   30. Кабина корабля (Celestia ship Cockpit). Имитирует вид из кабины космического корабля, в котором мы совершаем свои виртуальные путешествия по Вселенной.

Примечание 1.
Из приведенного списка позиция №30 реализована в качестве инструмента, остальные 29 позиций в качестве аддонов. См. раздел "adds ="в файле
config.lua от 14.08.2012:

Code: Select all

adds =

Примечание 2.
Файл ReadMe_ru.txt от 16.08.2012. идентичен файлу ReadMe_ru.txt от 28.04.2009 за исключением следующей дополнительной информации:

Code: Select all

* Ошибку с FOV исправил Александр Кузнецов a.k.a Alexell <>
* Дополнили и частично перевели список дополнений: Alexell и RGV1
* Нового раздела с перечнем дополнений.

Примечание 3.
Графический интерфейс Lua_Edu_Tools_1.2beta9 был в составе сборки Celestia Extended Pack v1.1 (август 2012).
В аннотации к релизу указаны, отличия Lua Edu Tools v1.2 beta9 от версии 1.2 beta8:
* Оптимизирован LUA-код инструмента для версии Celestia v1.6.1. (файлы fovBox.lua, renderBox.lua, toolBox.lua).

Posted: 18.01.2019, 08:38
by Croc
4. Сборник аддонов в графическом интерфейсе Lua Universal Tools v3.0 (16.05.2016), см. вложение.


4.1. Количество аддонов = 32, в том числе:
  • аддоны из Lua_Edu_Tools_v1.2_beta9_with_Addon_pack_ru = 29
  • новые аддоны = 3, в том числе:
    • "Space_Lift",
    • "Fiction_Objects",
    • "Solar_System_by_Size",

Posted: 18.01.2019, 18:51
by Croc
5. Сборник аддонов в графическом интерфейсе Lua Universal Tools v4.0 (01.09.2016)
5.1. Количество аддонов = 34, в том числе:
  • аддоны из Lua Universal Tools v3.0 = 32
  • новые аддоны = 2, в том числе:
    • Realistic_Milky_Way, см. вложение
    • Kuiper_Belt, см. вложение. Обновлено 22.01.2019

Posted: 18.01.2019, 21:46
by Croc
6. Сборник аддонов в графическом интерфейсе Lua Universal Tools v5.0 (14.12.2017)
6.1. Количество аддонов = 28, в том числе:
  • аддоны из Lua Universal Tools v4.0 = 34
  • исключенные аддоны = -6, в том числе:
    • Meteorite_Impacts
    • Impact_Craters
    • Earth_Features
    • Earth_Volcanoes
    • Earthquakes
    • Earth_Cities

Примечание. Исключенные аддоны интегрированы в новый инструмент renderLocs:


Posted: 21.01.2019, 14:24
by Croc
7. Сборник аддонов в графическом интерфейсе Lua Universal Tools v5.0 beta2(31.12.2018)
7.1. Количество аддонов = 36, в том числе:
аддоны из Lua Universal Tools v5.0 = 28
аддоны из Celestia Origin v.7 = 8 (помечены красными квадратиками)
7.2. Сравнение коллекции аддонов в Celestia Origin v.7 и в Lua Universal Tools v4.0:


Примечание. Аддоны с пометкой #1 - это разные версии, аддоны #2, #3, #4 имеют различия в названии.

7.3 Список новых аддонов (см. вложение):